This synthesis report is a preliminary synthesis of the findings of studies of the COVID-19 experiences of 12 African countries- Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tunisia. and Uganda. Commissioned by the Knowledge Platform on Inclusive Development Policies (INCLUDE), the studies have sought to examine the implications of COVID-19 and state responses for livelihoods and structural inequalities in Africa. In this report, we discuss some of the findings under the following headings: a) the importance of context and pre-existing conditions; b) commonalities and specificities of COVID-19 responses; c) the gains and deficits of responses; d) the implications of responses for inequalities; e) the challenges of population data, participation, and democratic deficits; and lastly, f) what we still do not know about the future arc of COVID-19.