Roos Trommelen


We coordinate and facilitate programmes in research and dialogue to generate new knowledge and insights on inclusive development in Africa. In these programmes, INCLUDE interacts closely with different research groups and partner organizations working in the Netherlands and Africa on inclusive development.

African Policy Dialogues

APD Participants in Ghana

Status: ongoing

Initiated by INCLUDE’s platform members, African Policy Dialogues (APDs) are networks of policy actors that aim to encourage the use of existing and new knowledge in policy making in Africa.

Programme page


In short:
  • 2016-2018: 7 dialogues in Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Mozambique and Nigeria
  • 2019–2020: 4 dialogues in Kenya, Uganda and Ghana
  • 2020–2021: 3 dialogues (Mali, Mozambique, Niger)

Green Jobs and the Future of Work in Africa

Image Credit: Whitney van Schyndel

Status: ongoing

Since 2022, INCLUDE and Palladium combine their forces in a long-term partnership to strengthen the evidence base around youth employment and the future of work in Africa.

Programme page


In short:

The main objectives of the partnership are the following:

  • Contribute to strengthening the evidence base around decent work and youth employment in Africa, particularly about green jobs and the future of work.
  • Providing key insights, practical guidance, and tools to policy makers and practitioners for effective programming and policy-making
  • Leverage networks and building a community of practice around youth employment in Africa

Growth sectors for youth employment

‘Work and income for young men and women in Africa: a political economy and social equity approach to the employment potential of specific sectors and subsectors in African economies’

Status: ongoing

– an AERCODIERF-INCLUDE collaborative research project.


Programme page
In short:
  • To provide new research evidence on growth sectors for youth employment
  • 10 countries
  • 3 framework research papers
  • 10 policy briefs
  • 1 synthesis paper

Boosting Decent Employment for Africa’s Youth

Status: ongoing

How can soft skills development and work-based learning improve job opportunities for young people?


  • Synthesize and share evidence about why, and how best to, support youth employment
  • Generate new, rigorous evidence on how soft skills development and work-based learning may boost economic opportunities for youth
  • Develop a community of practice and engage youth to foster learning and policy outreach through multi-stakeholder dialogue within and between countries
Programme page


In short:
  • 8 research projects
  • 5 evidence syntheses per year
  • 65+ multidisciplinary researchers
  • 18+ research institutions

Digital divides or dividends?

Including basic services in Africa’s digitalisation agenda

Status: Completed in 2022

This research programme has been designed to gather important information to support the effective digitalisation of basic services in Africa.


Georgie Cobbs / Unsplash


Programme Page
In short:
  • 5 country case studies (Benin, Ghana, Mauritius, Rwanda and Uganda)
  • 1 synthesis paper
  • One year (from Oct 2021)
  • Inclusion (access, usage, affordability, safety, participation)
  • Spatial equity (rural-urban divides)
  • Government-to-citizen services

Equity in COVID-19

Mitigation and Policy Responses in Africa

Status: completed in 2022

This research programme systematically reconstructs, documents and analyses the mitigation measures, policy responses and interventions by national governments and non-state actors in twelve African countries in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Programme page



In short:
  • Country case studies of the 12 INCLUDE focus countries
  • 12 research groups led by African researchers
  • A synthesis providing overarching insights into lessons learnt from the country case studies

New Roles of Civil Society Organizations for Inclusive Development

Status: completed (2018-2020)

Investigating the assumptions underlying the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ civil society policy framework ‘Dialogue & Dissent’.


  • Generating new, evidence-based knowledge on the assumptions of the theory of change underlying the Dialogue & Dissent framework.
  • Making this knowledge accessible, available and applicable to policymakers and CSOs in the Netherlands and in LLMICs.
Programme page
In short:
  • 8 research projects
  • 5 events hosted
  • Research in 4 African and 4 non-African countries

Research for Inclusive Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

Status: completed (2014-2018)

Research on social protection, productive employment and strategic actors for inclusive development.


  • To pay specific attention in policy description and practical advice for transformation processes for inclusive development in Africa to the role of strategic actors , to more inclusive productive employment policies and practices and to the cost-effectiveness of social protection programmes.
Programme page
In short:
  • 17 research projects
  • 3 themes
  • 3 synthesis reports
  • 30 news items
  • 1 final conference