It is difficult to define the middle class in Africa without taking into account regional differences due to countries’ different levels of development. If South Africa is excluded from the equation, four general points can be made about Africa’s middle class.
The middle class is not statistically significant in Sub-Saharan Africa unlike in the Maghreb countries and South Africa. This class could be the true driver of some principles of inclusive development, such as the respect of human rights and environment, but it has a relatively low economic role compared to the upper class and the working classes that respectively bear investment and labor force.
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