INCLUDE Platform

This synthesis report comprises existing and new knowledge on ‘Inclusive Development in Africa’, taking together findings from the RIDSSA research projects on Social Protection, Productive Employment, Strategic actors, insights from INCLUDE’s African Policy Dialogues, and a review of the state-of-the-art literature on inclusive development.


“It provides synthesis of why a focus on inequality matters. In summary: while there have been major advances in global human development, this report stipulates (based on a range of different reports and publications) there are more poor people in Africa than there were in 1990 – mostly resulting from increased population growth combined with unequal distribution of improved well-being.

It explains clearly why addressing inequality matters for development on the long run. In summary: inequality is negatively related to long term economic growth, inequality poses challenges to national and global stability, inequality in income fosters inequality in other areas (e.g. health) which sustains or even increases the existing inequality.

It provides a good definition of inclusive development: “Inclusive development is achieved when improvements are realized in the income and non-income dimensions of development and inequalities in these dimensions fall”

So why does it matter to our (impact assessment) work? The majority of our work still focuses on average effects on income dimensions of poverty. If we/our clients want to learn how to foster long term (economic) development we should focus more on differential impacts and on non-income dimensions of poverty. Some ideas on what we can do about it:

  • More clearly identify the different stakeholders involved and how they may be impacted differently
  • Stress the importance of inclusive development in acquisition trajectories (not only from social point of view, but also economic point of view)
  • Estimate differential effects (even though it would require a change in design if you want to do it properly given the power of the data)
  • Report on the (potential) implications for inclusive development”

– Endorsement by dr. Fedes van Rijn (Wageningen University and Research) 

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