Most of the world’s poor today are found in rural Africa, while the backbone of most African economies remains agriculture. Despite increasing urbanisation, there are projections that around half of Africa’s new jobseekers will need to find employment in rural areas, at least until 2030. Africa has a youth employment challenge, which is particularly acute in rural areas, as sustainable and decent employment opportunities for young people are very limited, and poverty rates are high. Agricultural and rural transformation can lead to improved employment outcomes, setting rural and African economies more broadly on a path to decent employment creation. This Evidence Synthesis Paper evaluates the potential of the rural economy to provide decent employment and the outcomes associated with various types of employment for rural young people in Africa.