Green Revolution policies in Rwanda have been praised for their success in increasing agricultural productivity. However, a local level analysis shows that this productivity growth benefits few people. For subsistence farmers, the imposed innovation has disrupted their practices, increasing their poverty and food insecurity.
Land tenure policies appear to have led to increased landlessness among the poor. The main drivers of landlessness were found to be land sales to escape poverty and the government policy of restricting transfers that lead to further fragmentation of plots.
Attention to smallholders’ needs, supporting landless farmers and pro-poor land tenure strategies are key ingredients for improving the implementation of Green Revolution policies in Rwanda.