Zenobia Ismail is a research fellow in the Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (GSDRC) at the University of Birmingham. In 2017 she completed a doctorate in Politics and International Studies at the University of Cambridge. Before this she was a researcher at the Centre for Social Development in Africa at the University of Johannesburg, worked with the Afrobarometer research programme and as a senior researcher at the Community Agency for Social Enquiry. She has conducted research on skills development and training programs since 2004.