INCLUDE Platform

Zeremariam Fre


ORGANISATION: Pastoral and Environmental Network in the Horn of Africa (PENHA)
TITLE: founder director

Zeremariam Fre is the founder director of the Pastoral and Environmental Network in the Horn of Africa (PENHA). He has been a lecturer on Development Administration and Planning (DAP) and Environment and Sustainable Development at the Bartlett Development Planning Unit, University College London since 2002. Fre has an MSc and a PhD in Agriculture, agricultural extension and rural development from the University of Reading, United Kingdom. His research interests include: evolving livelihoods and urbanization, project cycle management, project monitoring and evaluation, urban-rural/rural-urban interactions, resource based conflicts, sustainability of urban and peri-urban agriculture, food security and food sovereignty, resilience of indigenous knowledge systems in the Global South. Fre is the leader of the INCLUDE/NWO-WOTRO research project ‘Social protection for inclusive development in the Afar region of Ethiopia’ (http://includeplatform.net/research-group/social-protection-inclusive-development-afar-region-ethiopia/).


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Question of the Week 6 2016-09-05 10:52:41
In most Least Developed Countries(LDC's) s, entrepreneurial ability and expansion is hindered because of poor access to finance, lack of initial capital at large, social services and infrastructural development. Thus, social protection programmes are some of the means designed to narrow this gap by strengthening the participation of individuals in the informal sector and improving entrepreneurship at the community level.Such interventions are also designed to facilitate and enhance the participation of youth and women in the informal sector where there is a great demand small startup capital.
 
Based on our research among the Afar pastoral and agro-pastoral peoples in the Ethiopian arid lands,fully implementing a Productive Safety Net Programme (PNSP) is very challenging to say the least considering that the PSNP has been designed to suit more sedentary farming communities where the soci-economic,environmental and livelihoods conditions are very different to those of the Afar. However,one must also appreciate that the pastoral communities are in a state of transition because of the recurrent droughts and loss of their livestock which have made more vulnerable and prone to destitution, poverty and sedenterization. It is in this context that the current  PSNP programme provides the Afar  immediate  social protection support and becomes also a tool to enhance the forward and back-backward linkages in the diversification of their economy.We have found evidence that  Social protection programmes contributes towards house hold asset creation, enables households  transform households' economic activity to a better scheme through asset accumulation and increased savings. Based on the results from our participatory Rural Appraisal work and focus group discussion with community leaders, pastoral community and official, PSNP has a notable contribution to increase the involvement of  pastoral households in the informal sector like livestock trading, petty trading, handcraft and participation in min agriculture.